Engineering - survey
Engineering – survey is an integral part of constructions out of dependence of building project dimension and significance, that is both for capital building ( high-rise buildings construction, highway engineering etc.) and for erection of cottages, country-houses being fulfilled at early stages of designing. Records, made during survey, enter mandatory make up of documentation necessary for receipt of construction permits.
The results of engineering survey will enable timely fulfillment anti-land sliding steps, rational choice of designing building location or edifice, correct choice of type and depth of foundation, conducting of drainage, water-proof works, allow to consider aggression of liquid medium towards the concrete, reinforced concrete and metal constructions.
Engineering survey provides comprehensive inquiry into geological environment of terrain, constructing site, including relief, geological structure, geomorphological and hydro-geological, conditions, composition, state and ground index-test, geological and engineering-geological processes forecast the possibility of chance alterations in the sphere of interacting designing projects with geological environment during building and exploiting. These data are in need for substantiating the project definition.
Engineering research comprises:
- The compilation and processing of last years data;
- Reconnaissance and route observations;
- Arched excavation;
- Geophysical survey;
- Groundwater survey;
- Fixed observations (monitoring components of geological environment);
- Laboratory soil exploration, underground and surface waters testing;
- Geological ground survey of existing buildings and erections bases;
- Forecasting of alterations of engineering-geological conditions;
- Office material processing and drawing up of technical account (conclusion).
Collection and processing bygone years materials is realized for every development stage of pre-project and project documentation.
Engineering-geological reconnoitre includes:
- Inspection of investigative site.
- Relief visual assessment.
- Description of available exposings including quarries building out-put etc.
- Description of water-development.
- Description of geodynamic surface display
Well-drilling and prospecting holes driving are proceeded for the purpose:
- Ascertaining or verification of geological section, conditions of soil beddings.
- Depth and location ground water test.
- Dry-sampling for their characteristics, composition and state definition.
- Chemical analysis of ground-waters samplings.
- Field soil testing.
- Fixed control ( monitoring).
- Detecting and contouring zones of displaying engineering and geological processes.
- Arched excavation is proceeded by means of mining plants URB-2A2M, URB 2D3.
- In the out-of-the way places ( mountains, steep slopes, etc.) and hampered conditions ( basements, in a building) well-drilling is realized using portable mining plants.
Field ground sampling are performed for the purpose of:
- Decomposing of geological section, contouring lenses (water) and streaks of loose and different kinds of grounds.
- Definition of physic, deformation and structural behavior in conditions of natural bedding.
- Appraisal of grounds index-test spatial changeability
- Researches are carried out using methods of static sounding, former blocks (punches). Choice of modes depends on kinds of analyzing soils and targets of research regarding to the stage of designing, level of liability buildings and erections.
Geophysical surveys are realized in combination with other ways engineering prospecting. Target of fulfillment:
- Definition of loose rock structure and thickness.
- Detecting zones increasing fissuring and watering.
- Definition of underground watercourse depth deposition.
- Geophysical researches are realized using geo-radar “Loza”.
Hydro-geological research is put into life in the next cases:
- When in the sphere of interacting designing project with geological environment are spread or could form underground waters.
- Submerge process is forecasted.
- Underground waters exercise significant influence upon characteristics of soils.
- Influence upon the intensity of development geological and engineering-geological processes.
Fixed monitoring is realized in close engineering-geological terms for reliable constructions, starting them during prospecting for pre-projecting documentation or the project and proceeding it during process of building and exploiting objects.
Bases grounds of existing buildings and erections are examined during expansion, reconstruction, building of new erections close to existing, and also in the case of accidents and deformations of buildings and erections.